One of the objectives of those concerned with agrarian reforms was to increase production. In the countries where food shortages are chronic- India and Pakistan- as well, agrarian reforms have been justified by the necessity to increase the production of basic foodstuffs. Since the measures were mostly restricted to a redistribution of control over land but brought about little change in the traditional cultivation, little production increases ensued from the reforms. The lack of measures to change cultivation caused the two countries to depend largely on cereal imports with the ensuing economic and political consequences.

In the second half of the sixties, technological changes took place in agriculture which exercised a strong influence on the production level. The yield increases resulting from the Green Revolution were so obvious that, within just a few years, the new technologyhad taken over in all of the regions where it was possible to apply it. It was remarkable that these large yield increases bad been achieved without institutional changes in the agrarian sector. This soon led to the assumption that it was possible to develop agriculture without institutional reforms and that one could do without complicated agrarian reforms. However, this soon proved to be an erroneous conclusion. A more comprehensive analysis of the process shows that numerous bottlenecks arose due to the prevailing agrarran structure and that the implications of the Green Revolution actually made a change in the agrarian structure even more necessary.