2. DEPENDENCE THEORIES
According to dependence theories, the cause of underdevelopment
is the dependence on industrialized countries while internal
factors of developing countries are considered irrelevant
or seen as symptoms and consequences of dependence. The development
of industrialized countries and the underdevelopment of developing
countries are parts of one historical process. Developing
countries are dependent countries. The economic and political
interests of industrialized countries determine their development
or underdevelopment. The goals are superimposed. Underdevelopment
is not backwardness but intentional downward development.
As to the causes of dependence, the various theories differ,
economic factors always dominating. External trade theories
concentrate on economic relations between countries. Imperialism
theories stress the politicoeconomic interest while dependencia
theories concentrate on the deformation of internal structures
by dependence which perpetuates the situation.
Dependence theories concentrate on explanations of the genesis
of underdevelopment and pay little attention to strategies
for overcoming this situation. Implicit development here means
liberation, end of structural dependence, and independence.