The sep-system regulates the economic relations between the land cultivators (zamindars) and the members of the Services trade (kammis) in West Pakistan. It is related to the Indian Jajmani-system. The sep-system is a distributive System with hereditary obligations determined by custom. The zamindars receive the Services which are essential for land cultivation and life while the kammis are liable to perform all requested operations concerned with their craft and to be available for certain general tasks. Furthermore, they have to discharge various social and ceremonial functions. The underlying principle in the remuneration of the kammis is not the payment of a service rendered but the securement of livelihood. The recompense includes a basic remuneration in kind as well as particular concessions and gifts and is paid at a rate fixed by custom irrespective of the labaur performance.

Due to the land monopoly of the zamindars the kammis are subject to a certain dependence. However, this dependence is institutionally limited by custom and the trade-union-like function of the kammi castes. Especially the monopoly in the performance of all tasks connected with their profession strengthens the position of the kammis.

Recently the sep-system has undergone certain changes on account of the increase in population, the transition to the market and money economy and alternative occupational opportunities for the kammis. Previous experiences reveal that the sep-relationship is normally terminated not by an occupational change but with the alternation of generations. The resultant difficulties are to a certain extent solved by the influx of refugees into the villages. Partially the position within the profession is affected, too, the kammi changing e. g. to piecework and money wage or combining the sep-relations with contract work. The disintegration of the sep-system to be expected requires the implementation of a number of economic policies.